NP-Completeness

Transformations and Satisfiability

11.1. Give the 3-SAT formula that results from applying the reduction of SAT to 3-SAT for the formula:
${\displaystyle (x\lor y\lor {\overline {z}}\lor w\lor u\lor {\overline {v}})\land ({\overline {x}}\lor {\overline {y}}\lor z\lor {\overline {w}}\lor u\lor v)\land (x\lor {\overline {y}}\lor {\overline {z}}\lor w\lor u\lor {\overline {v}})\land (x\lor {\overline {y}})}$

11.2. Draw the graph that results from the reduction of 3-SAT to vertex cover for the expression
${\displaystyle (x\lor {\overline {y}}\lor z)\land ({\overline {x}}\lor y\lor {\overline {z}})\land ({\overline {x}}\lor y\lor z)\land (x\lor {\overline {y}}\lor {\overline {x}})}$

11.3. Prove that 4-SAT is NP-hard.

11.4. Stingy SAT is the following problem: given a set of clauses (each a disjunction of literals) and an integer ${\displaystyle k}$, find a satisfying assignment in which at most ${\displaystyle k}$ variables are true, if such an assignment exists. Prove that stingy SAT is NP-hard.

11.5. The Double SAT problem asks whether a given satisfiability problem has at least two different satisfying assignments. For example, the problem ${\displaystyle {{v1,v2},{v_{1},v_{2}},{v_{1},v_{2}}}}$ is satisfiable, but has only one solution ${\displaystyle (v_{1}=F,v_{2}=T)}$. In contrast, ${\displaystyle {{v_{1},v_{2}},{v_{1},v_{2}}}}$ has exactly two solutions. Show that Double-SAT is NP-hard.

11.6. Suppose we are given a subroutine that can solve the traveling salesman decision problem on page 357 in (say) linear time. Give an efficient algorithm to find the actual TSP tour by making a polynomial number of calls to this subroutine.

11.7. Implement a SAT to 3-SAT reduction that translates satisfiability instances into equivalent 3-SAT instances.

11.8. Design and implement a backtracking algorithm to test whether a set of clause sets is satisfiable. What criteria can you use to prune this search?

11.9. Implement the vertex cover to satisfiability reduction, and run the resulting clauses through a satisfiability solver code. Does this seem like a practical way to compute things?

11.10

11.11

11.12

11.13

11.14

11.15

11.16

11.17

11.18

11.19

11.20

11.21

11.22

11.23

11.24

11.25

11.26

11.27

11.28

11.29

11.30

Algorithms for Special Cases

11.31

11.32

11.33

11.34

11.35

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